The River Valleys and The Beginnings of Civilization

The early civilizations were all formed around the fertile lands of the river valleys. These river valleys are:

  1. The Tigris and the Euphrates river valleys where the Mesopotamia civilization started
  2. The Nile river where the Egyptian civilization was formed
  3. The Indus and its tributataries where the Indus Valley civilization was formed
  4. The Yantze and Yellow rivers where the Chinese civilization took birth
River Valley Civilizations Map

The four early civilizations long the banks of the rivers
(Image source:

Mesopotamia was the first civilization and, around 5300 BCE, the Sumer people were the first to settle along the fertile lands of the Tigirs and the Eupherates rivers. The first cities were formed during these times and the earliest known writings were also found from during these times.

Transportation was mainly by rivers and seas. Goods and ideas were exchanged and military powers were established. Use of horse for cavalry and to pull chariots lead to an effective land based military. Slowly teritorial states were formed and later empires were formed.

Around the same time, the Indus Valley, the Egyptian and the Chineese Civilizations started to form. Humans has started to settle down and this is how civilizations were born.

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